An unexpected finding...
An apparently healthy shelter kitten was presented for routine ovariohysterectomy. While performing pre-surgical baseline labs the referring veterinarian found this egg on urinalysis. All other lab work was normal and the physical exam was unremarkable.
This is an egg of Pearsonmea, the bladder worm of cats and dogs. Eggs have the typical capillarid appearance being barrel or lemon shaped with two bipolar plugs and a rough shell. Focusing on the shell wall reveals a characteristic thick globular pattern of ridges, as depicted in the image below.
Special thanks to Dr. Jeba Jeba Jesudoss Chelladurai BVSc, MS, DACVM (Parasit) at Iowa State University for providing this case.
Twenty-eight Colorado River toads were confiscated and sent to an exotic veterinary hospital in Oklahoma. At presentation, most of the toads were emaciated with a body condition score of 1-2 out of 5. Fecal samples collected from the colony were sent to a parasitology diagnostic laboratory. A centrifugal fecal flotation with Sheather’s sugar solution was performed (specific gravity, 1.26) and revealed numerous protozoan cysts and a moderate number of larvae (Image 1).
Image 1: Centrifugal fecal flotation 100x magnification
To take a closer look at the larvae, a Baermann test was performed, and a large number of larvae were recovered (Image 2).
Image 2: A large mass of larvae recovered from the Baermann exam.
Image 3: Larvae were approximately 300-500 µm in length with a prominent esophageal bulb 100x magnification
Rhabdias spp. larvae
A Rhabditiform esophagus was clearly observed in these specimens. Rhabdias is a common lungworm of frogs and toads, belonging to the superfamily Rhabditoidea. The life cycle is direct; eggs passed by the parthenogenic female are carried up from the bronchus to the mouth, swallowed, hatched, and passed in the feces as rhabditiform larvae. Frogs and toads become infected by ingestion of infective larvae or by cutaneous penetration. Larvae migrate through the body tissues and become adults in the lungs. Pathologic effects of Rhabdias are unknown. Infections without any pathologic changes are common. Most amphibians are asymptomatic; however, heavy worm burdens may cause lethargy and death. Although Rhabdias have a similar life cycle and morphologic features to Strongyloides stercoralis, they do not infect humans.
Baker, David G. Flynn’s Parasites of Laboratory Animals, Chapter 8, page 146.
Winter is coming
A 1-year-old, intact male bearded dragon was brought to an animal clinic with a history of intermittent soft stool. Centrifugal fecal flotation with Sheather’s sugar solution (specific gravity, 1.25) was performed.
A large number of coccidian oocysts were observed, and the majority of oocysts were already sporulated (Figures 1 and 2).
Morphology of the oocysts was carefully examined; sporulated oocysts contained two sporocysts, and each sporocyst had a small bump or knob like structure on the end (Figures 3 and 4).
Figure 1: Centrifugal fecal flotation 100x magnification.
Figure 2: Several oocysts were already sporulated 400x magnification.
Figure 3: A small knob was observed on each sporocyst (indicated by arrows) 600x magnification.
Figure 4: An additional view at 600x magnification showing the small knob at the end of each sporocyst (indicated by arrows).
The small knob on the end of each sporocyst was a Stieda body. Isospora species with Stieda bodies have been reclassified in the family Eimeriidae, whereas those without Stieda bodies have remained in the family Sarcocystidae. All Isospora species found in mammals lack Stieda bodies, and thus are in the family Sarcocystidae and are named Cystoisospora.
Isospora amphiboluri is a common intestinal coccidian parasite in bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps). Isospora amphiboluri can damage the intestinal mucosa causing malabsorption, which leads to diarrhea, dehydration, and in severe cases death. Juveniles are most at risk.
Carreno and Barta. (1999). An Eimerid origin of isosporoid coccidia with Stieda bodies as shown by phylogenetic analysis of small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequences.
Hafeez and Barta. (2019). Conserved mitochondrial genome organization of Isospora species (Eimeriidae, Coccidia, Apicomplexa) infecting reptiles (Pogona vitticeps (Sauria: Agamidae) and birds (Garrulax chinensis Aves: Passeriformes).
Special thanks to Dr. John R. Barta (Professor at Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph) for helping and confirming the diagnosis of this case and sharing the references!
How pathogenic is this parasite?
A 4-month-old quarter horse colt was submitted for necropsy. Per submission history, the foal was behaving normally in the pasture the previous morning. Around 3pm, he was down and could not get up. His temperature was >108 °F, and although aggressive supportive care was initiated, the foal was found dead in his stall around 5pm.
No significant gross abnormalities were observed during the necropsy examination. The GI tract contents were watery and muddy, indicating diarrhea. A fecal sample was submitted for a diarrhea panel to determine if there were any viral, bacterial, or parasitic infections.
A centrifugal fecal flotation with Sheather’s sugar solution (specific gravity, 1.26) was performed, and a low number of strongyle type eggs were detected.
Histologic examination of the small intestine revealed a low number of intraepithelial protozoan gamonts (Figure 1).
Figure 1: Histologic examination of small intestine 200x magnification.
The pathologist on the case requested another fecal examination to confirm this protozoan infection. Another centrifugal fecal flotation was performed with saturated sodium nitrate solution (specific gravity, 1.39) and again showed a low number of strongyle eggs and additional protozoan oocysts (arrow) that were not evident on the first fecal flotation (Figures 2 & 3).
Figure 2: Centrifugal fecal flotation with saturated NaNO3 solution (specific gravity, 1.39) 100x magnification.
Figure 3: 200x magnification.
Eimeria leuckarti oocysts
Eimeria leuckarti is an intestinal coccidian parasite common in horses and donkeys. Oocysts are large and ovoid in shape (~ 80 x 60 microns) with a thick dark shell and distinct micropyle. Diagnosis can be challenging. Due to the heavy/dense oocysts, a sedimentation procedure has been recommended, or flotation with a higher specific gravity solution, as in the present case.
Infections appear to have minimal clinical significance in horses; however, it has been incriminated as a cause of intermittent diarrhea. In this case, rotavirus was detected by PCR, which was thought to be the primary cause of severe diarrhea, resulting in sudden death.
Special thanks to Dr. Rory Chia-Ching Chien, DVM, MSc, DACVP for sharing the case and a photo of the histologic examination.
Why did the snake cross the road?
A juvenile, rat snake was brought to a wildlife rescue in Oklahoma after being hit by a car. Due to poor prognosis, the snake was euthanized and sent to necropsy. Necropsy revealed a severe spinal fracture, which most likely occurred during the accident. Also, three partially digested mice were recovered from the gastrointestinal tract. A fecal sample from the snake was sent to the parasitology diagnostic lab, and a centrifugal fecal flotation was performed with Sheather’s sugar solution (specific gravity, 1.25). The following organisms were observed.
Figure 1: 200x magnification
Figure 2: 400x magnification
Psorobia (= Psorergates) simplex mites.
Psorobia simplex is also known as the “follicle mite of mice.” This is a small, round mite, and both adults and nymphs have four pairs of legs. Each tarsus terminates in a pair of simple claws and a pad-like empodium.
Natural hosts for this parasite are mice, although infestation of laboratory mice is now extremely rare. Infestation of mice with P. simplex is characterized by formation of small, distended, white-colored, nodules in the skin. These nodules are thought to form as a result of epidermal growth to accommodate internal pressure of space-occupying mites. All life stages of the mite are found inside these nodules.
In this case, these mites were found in the snake as a spurious parasite – The snake ate the mice, and the mites were just passing through the GI tract of the snake.
Baker. Flynn’s Parasites of Laboratory animals, 2nd ed. Pages 366-367.
Hop to it!
An approximately 6-year-old, intact female, mixed breed rabbit was euthanized after battling with the last stage of uterine adenocarcinoma and brought to necropsy. Besides confirming the adenocarcinoma, gross examination revealed some focal, irregular, depressed areas on the surface of the kidneys. On histologic examination, several spores were observed in the epithelial cells of the kidneys (Figures 1 & 2).
Figure 1: Spores indicated by arrow.
Figure 2: Spores indicated by arrows.
Encephalitozoon cuniculi is a spore-forming pathogen with worldwide distribution and has been isolated from various mammal species such as rabbits, shrews, mice, hamsters, muskrats, guinea pigs, goats, sheep, pigs, horses, domestic dogs, domestic cats, foxes, non-human primates, and man. Historically this pathogen was considered a protozoan parasite; however, due to its unique features, it is currently classified in the phylum Microsporidia. Infection occurs by ingestion or inhalation of spores shed in the feces, mucus, and urine of infected animals. Transplacental transmission has been also reported. Encephalitozoon cuniculi can cause granulomatous lesions in a wide range of tissues, but primarily affects the brain, kidney, or eyes. Most immunocompetent rabbits do not show any clinical signs; however, in some severe cases, granulomatous lesions associated with E. cuniculi can cause vestibular disease, chronic renal failure, lens rupture, pyogranulomatous uveitis, and cataracts.
Ante-mortem diagnosis of E. cuniculi infection is challenging, and the gold standard is post-mortem histologic examination with immunochemical staining. In this case, the E. cuniculi infection was an incidental finding.
Molly Varga, 2014. Textbook of Rabbit Medicine, 2nd ed.
Frank Kunzel, et al. 2018. Clinical signs, diagnosis, and treatment of Encephalitozoon cuniculi infection in rabbit. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Exotic Animal Practice. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1094919417302025?via%3Dihub#fig3
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